Under Decree No 50/30.12.1985 of the Council of Ministers as of January 1, 1986 the Earth and Man National Museum (EMNM) was established with the aim of finding, collecting, storing and exhibiting minerals and their derivatives.

Earth and Man National Museum  - Sofia is a state cultural institute of national importance. Performs nationwide search, acquisition, exploration, preservation and presentation of minerals and mineral resources as an important part of the national natural heritage. Participates in the implementation of state policy study and preservation of cultural heritage, together with the competent state and municipal authorities. Implemented methodological and other assistance to the museums of the national museum network.

The Earth and Man National Museum occupies an architecturally unique building in the centre of Sofia, which was constructed at the end of the 19th century as part of the Sofia Arsenal complex. It is one of the first buildings in the country of monolithic reinforced concrete construction with anti-earthquake walls.

The building has been renovated, declared monument of culture, and adapted to the needs of the Earth and Man National Museum. The building reconstruction project was created by architect Hristo Ganchev. The interior is a project of the artist Ivan Radev, while the frescoes in the hall were painted by the artist Teofan Sokerov.

Following a reconstruction that went on for 18 months, the museum was officially opened to visitors on June 19, 1987.